The article analyses the book by Academician Fyodor I. Buslaev «On the Teaching of the National Language» through the lens of the academic and historical tradition and its impact on the public education. This work identifies the fundamental concepts of Academician Buslaev’s paper and explores his ideas most relevant to the current philological practice. The article recognises the uniqueness of Academician Buslaev’s work in the linguistic chronicle of the 19th century as the first textbook on a history of the mother tongue and showcases its role in shaping a new approach to teaching the verbal art. We also show the applicability of Academician Buslaev’s humanitarian beliefs to reconstruction of Russia’s national language identity in the outstanding cultural heritage of the global value. The ever-evolving Great Russian language, orchestrated by the grassroots power of its people, has always been at Russia’s spiritual core.