The Nineteenth Century and Present Time: The Comparison of Foreign Language Influence on the Russian language

2021. № 4, 77-84


The article proposes such an aspect of the study of foreign language borrowings, in which each of the stages of the influence of foreign languages on Russian, at different times, has its own specifics. The comparison of these stages shows that in the first third of the XIX century foreign words were used as peculiar inclusions in the Russian text - in the spelling form in which these words exist in the source language (French, English, German, etc.). Later, if it was necessary to use a foreign language word in a Russian text or in Russian oral speech, this word was transliterated by Russian graphics or its transcription in accordance with the grammatical and phonetic norms of the Russian language. The article examines the following aspects of accepting foreign language vocabulary into Russian: 1) languages that are the main sources of lexical borrowing in Russian; 2) ways of borrowing; 3) written and oral forms of a foreign language words in Russian; 4) thematic vocabulary groups; 5) types of borrowed words; 6) the social environment through which the words are borrowed; 7) the scope of the predominant use of foreign language vocabulary; 8) the attitude of society towards linguistic borrowing and foreign words; 9) lexicographic presentation of foreign language vocabulary. The author believes that in his comparison of stages of a foreign language influence on the Russian language at different periods, certain interesting tendencies and peculiarities can be identified.

For citation:

Krysin L. P. The Nineteenth Century and Present Time: the Comparison of Foreign Language Influence on the Russian Language. Russian Speech = Russkaya Rech’. 2021. No. 4. Pp. 77–84. DOI: 10.31857/ S013161170016230-2.